Differences in National Culture

Geert Hofstede’s six dimensions of national culture

Hofstede’s Research identifies 6 dimensions

  • Collectivism vs. Individualism
  • Power Distance
  • “Masculinity vs. Femininity”
  • Uncertainty Avoidance
  • Long-term Orientation
  • Indulgence

Collectivism vs. Individualism

Individualism is the extent to which people feel independent, as opposed to being interdependent as members of larger wholes.1

Heatmap of Collectivism vs. Individualism1

Power Distance

Power Distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally.1

Heatmap of Power Distance1

“Masculinity vs. Femininity”

Masculinity is the extent to which the use of force in endorsed socially. Men are supposed to be from Mars, women from Venus. Winning is important for both genders. Quantity is important and big is beautiful. In a feminine society, the genders are emotionally closer. Competing is not so openly endorsed, and there is sympathy for the underdog.1

Heatmap of "Masculinity vs. Femininity"1

Uncertainty Avoidance

Uncertainty avoidance deals with a society’s tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity.1

Heatmap of Uncertainty Avoidance1

Long-term Orientation

In a long-time-oriented culture, the basic notion about the world is that it is in flux, and preparing for the future is always needed. In a short-time-oriented culture, the world is essentially as it was created, so that the past provides a moral compass, and adhering to it is morally good.1

Heatmap of Long-term Orientation1


In an indulgent culture it is good to be free. Doing what your impulses want you to do, is good. Friends are important and life makes sense. In a restrained culture, the feeling is that life is hard, and duty, not freedom, is the normal state of being.1

Heatmap of Indulgence1

  1. Hofstede, G., & Hofstede, G. J. (2019). The 6-D model of national culture. Retrieved 29 August, 2019 from https://geerthofstede.com ^